When it finally did, around the turn of the 20th century, it brought with it immense social and political changes. Between 1890 and 1910, for example, the population of major Russian cities such as St. Petersburg and Moscow nearly doubled, resulting in overcrowding and destitute living conditions for a new class of Russian industrial workers. Large protests by Russian workers against the monarchy led to the Bloody Sunday massacre of 1905. The massacre sparked the Russian revolution of 1905 , during which angry workers responded with a series of crippling strikes throughout the country. Nicholas II After the bloodshed of 1905, Czar Nicholas II promised the formation of a series of representative assemblies, or Dumas, to work toward reform. Their involvement in the war would soon prove disastrous for the Russian Empire.
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